Navigating agricultural water management is especially challenging in water-scarce areas like Perth. This guide simplifies that journey for you. From types and characteristics of pumps to their applications and Perth-specific considerations, we’ve got you covered. For a tailored, efficient solution, consult APT Water. 

Applications of water pumps in agriculture: the many hats they wear 

In agriculture, especially in water-scarce regions like Perth, reliable water supply is pivotal. Water pumps serve multiple essential roles—from crop irrigation to livestock watering and nutrient distribution. This section examines the diverse agricultural applications of water pumps, each with its own set of requirements and considerations. 

Crop irrigation 

Water pumps form the backbone of modern irrigation systems, ensuring that crops receive the water they need to grow and thrive. 

Drip irrigation 

  • Efficiency: One of the primary advantages of drip irrigation is its water efficiency, a critical factor in water-scarce regions like Perth. Water pumps play a pivotal role in delivering water directly to the root zone, minimising water loss through evaporation or runoff. 
  • Precision: Drip irrigation allows for precise water delivery, reducing water waste and ensuring that each plant receives just the right amount of water, which is particularly important for crops that require a specific moisture level for optimal growth. 

Sprinkler systems 

  • Uniform distribution: In situations where crops require a uniform distribution of water—such as cereals, grasslands, and pastures—water pumps power the sprinkler systems that achieve this.  
  • Flexibility: Sprinkler systems can be adjusted to suit different field sizes and shapes, giving farmers greater flexibility in their irrigation practices. Water pumps in this system can be regulated to control pressure and flow rate for even water distribution. 

Livestock watering 

  • Constant supply: For livestock to be healthy and productive, a consistent supply of clean water is critical. Water pumps ensure that water troughs are regularly filled, regardless of the distance from the water source. 
  • High-capacity pumps: On larger cattle or sheep farms where water needs to be transported over great distances, high-capacity pumps are generally employed to meet the demand without sacrificing water pressure or flow rate. 

Nutrient distribution 

  • Fertigation: Combining fertilisation and irrigation, fertigation allows for the simultaneous delivery of water and nutrients to crops. Water pumps in such systems ensure that the nutrient solution is mixed correctly and distributed evenly. 


  • Efficiency: Using water pumps for fertigation purposes ensures that nutrients are delivered directly to the root zone, improving nutrient absorption rates and reducing the amount of fertiliser needed. 

Types of water pumps in agriculture 

Selecting the right water pump is vital for farming success in water-limited areas like Perth. This section examines four key pump types—centrifugal, submersible, diaphragm, and solar—each with its unique strengths and limitations. 

Centrifugal pumps 

Centrifugal pumps are versatile and easy to use, ideal for moving water from surface sources over short to moderate distances. Commonly used in Perth farms with access to rivers, dams, or shallow wells. 


  • Simple design: Centrifugal pumps are easy to maintain due to their basic mechanical makeup, mainly an impeller and casing. 


  • Easy to install: These pumps can be set up quickly, requiring no specialised knowledge, leading to fast irrigation setup. 


  • Relatively low upfront cost: Compared to submersible or solar pumps, centrifugal pumps are often cheaper initially, making them accessible for small or new farms. 

Best suited for 

  • Moving water from surface sources: Centrifugal pumps excel at drawing water from shallow wells, rivers, and dams. They are the standard choice for farmers in Perth who have access to such surface-level water sources. 


  • Not suitable for deep wells: Centrifugal pumps are limited by their inability to lift water from significant depths. If your water source is a deep well or borehole, you may need to consider other options like submersible pumps. 
  • Energy consumption: These pumps can consume significant electricity over time, a concern in Perth where energy costs are high. APT Water is aware of this and so works with pump manufacturers that value efficiency. 

Submersible pumps 

Submersible pumps excel at drawing water from deep sources and are durable but come with higher initial costs and maintenance needs. Ideal for Perth farmers using deep wells or boreholes. 


  • Highly efficient: Submersibles push water up, consuming less energy, especially beneficial for lifting from deep sources. 
  • Designed to operate underwater: Specifically designed for underwater use, their sealed construction protects the motor, ensuring durability. 
  • Durable, but higher initial cost: Made from durable materials like stainless steel for underwater resilience, these pumps have a higher initial cost compared to other types. 

Best suited for 

  • Deep wells and boreholes: Submersible pumps are the go-to option when water needs to be lifted from significant depths. This makes them an invaluable asset for Perth farmers who rely on deep wells or boreholes for their irrigation and livestock needs. 


  • Higher initial installation costs: Specialised design and materials lead to a pricier upfront investment, which may be challenging for small or budget-conscious farms. 
  • Potentially complex maintenance procedures: Though durable, repairs can be specialised and tricky due to the pump’s underwater location. 

Diaphragm pumps 

Diaphragm pumps are specialised but generally not suited for large-scale irrigation due to lower flow rates and pressure compared to centrifugal or submersible pumps. 


  • Capable of handling thick or muddy water: Diaphragm pumps can manage water with high sediment levels or muddiness, a feature that sets them apart from other pumps. 
  • Self-priming capabilities: These pumps can create their own vacuum to draw in fluid, useful when the pump is above the water level. 
  • Robust and long-lasting: Built with tough materials, these pumps are designed for longevity, especially in challenging water conditions. 

Best suited for 

  • Drainage purposes: Diaphragm pumps excel in draining areas that have become waterlogged due to rain or irrigation mishaps. Their ability to handle sediment-filled water makes them ideal for this application. 
  • Water filled with sediments or suspended particles: These pumps can move ‘dirty’ water from one place to another without the risk of clogging, making them invaluable in situations where water quality is compromised. 


  • Limited in scale: Diaphragm pumps are generally not ideal for large-volume, long-distance water transfer due to lower flow rates and pressure compared to centrifugal or submersible pumps. 

Solar pumps 

Solar pumps are gaining traction in sustainable agriculture, using Perth’s abundant sunlight for cost-effective irrigation. Ideal for remote areas, they have low running costs but require an initial investment and sunlight for operation. 


  • Eco-friendly: One of the most significant benefits of solar pumps is their minimal environmental impact. They do not emit greenhouse gases during operation, aligning well with sustainable agricultural practices and contributing to a cleaner environment. 
  • Utilises solar energy: Using photovoltaic cells, these pumps convert sunlight into electricity to power the water pump. This is especially beneficial in sunny regions like Perth, where solar energy is abundant and can be harnessed effectively for agricultural purposes. 
  • Virtually no operational costs post-installation: Once installed, solar pumps have minimal running costs. Unlike fuel-driven or electrical pumps, they do not require a constant source of fuel or electricity, reducing long-term expenses and making budgeting easier for farmers. 

Best suited for 

  • Remote or off-grid locations: Solar pumps are an ideal choice for areas where access to a reliable electrical grid is not available. They can operate independently, making them a flexible and dependable water supply solution for remote agricultural lands. 


  • Initial setup can be expensive: The setup, including solar panels and electronics, can be expensive but is often offset by long-term savings and potential subsidies. 
  • Depends on the availability of sunlight: While Perth is mostly sunny, cloud cover or rain can affect efficiency, requiring backup or water storage solutions. 

Perth-specific considerations: tailoring water pump solutions to local challenges 

In Perth’s unique agricultural landscape, generic solutions often fall short. Challenges like water scarcity, local regulations, and energy costs make pump selection a nuanced decision. This section explores key Perth-specific factors to consider when choosing and using water pumps for farming. 

Water scarcity and efficiency 

  • Decreasing rainfall: Perth has experienced a noticeable decrease in annual rainfall over the years. This makes water an increasingly scarce and valuable resource. Investing in highly efficient water pumps that can make the most of every drop is no longer an option but a necessity. 
  • Maximising utility: Given the water scarcity, pumps that offer features like variable speed drives to control water flow or have high efficiency in terms of water output per unit of power consumed can provide both environmental and economic benefits. 

Local regulations 

  • Department guidelines: The Department of Water and Environmental Regulation in Western Australia sets the legal frameworks for water extraction and usage. Not only are there guidelines, but licences are often required for various agricultural water uses. 
  • Legal compliance: Familiarising yourself with local water rights, extraction limits, and required permits is crucial to operate within the bounds of the law. Non-compliance can result in fines or legal action, making it imperative to understand and adhere to these regulations. 

Energy costs 

  • High electricity prices: Perth’s electricity costs are among the highest, making energy-efficient pumps or those powered by alternative energy sources a wise investment for the long term. Get in touch with APT Water to find the most energy-efficient solution for your agriculture or irrigation needs. 
  • Alternative energy options: Given the abundant sunlight in Perth, solar pumps can be an excellent alternative to traditional electric pumps, offering long-term economic benefits in terms of operational costs. 

Maintenance and spare parts 

  • Geographical isolation: Perth is relatively isolated, making it more challenging to source spare parts quickly for specialised or imported pumps. 
  • Availability of spare parts: Given this isolation, opting for pumps that have easily accessible spare parts within the region can save both time and money in the long run. This could mean choosing pumps from local suppliers or those with well-established supply chains in Western Australia such as APT Water. 

Concluding thoughts 

Choosing the right water pump is a crucial decision in Perth’s unique agricultural landscape. With challenges like water scarcity, local regulations, and high energy costs, your pump choice impacts your entire operation. 

 APT Water specialises in providing customised, energy-efficient, and durable pumping solutions to meet Perth farmers’ specific needs. Don’t leave your water management to chance—contact APT Water today for a solution tailored for your agricultural success. 

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